Modern Cleared Leaf Database

Comparison of the venation patterns of angiosperm leaves is difficult because the pigments in the leaf tissue often obscure the finer vein patterns. This problem can be solved by clearing or x-raying the leaves. Two large collections of cleared leaves at the Smithsonian Institution and Yale University provide some of the best comparative material for studying the distribution of leaf vein patterns across the ~410 families of extant angiosperms. Many of these leaves are shown here for comparison with the Green River fossil leaves and to illustrate the morphotype categories. See the Modern Cleared Leaf Database for more.

The Leaf Architecture Working Group (LAWG) Manual

The Compendium Index of North American Mesozoic and Cenozoic Type Fossil Plants is a set of approximately 12,000 illustrations (including line drawings, half-tones and photographs) and 9,800 pages of accompanying text that describe fossil plant species. This one-of-kind identification tool for fossil plant material organizes the taxonomic literature of paleobotany into a series of categories based on morphological features of fossil plants, such as leaf shape or the pattern of venation. The Index is housed at the Yale Peabody Museum in New Haven and may be visited with permission from the curator, Dr. Leo Hickey.